Acid-Etch Finish: 1. a cast stone finishing technique that reveals the aggregate without destroying the crisp detailing painstakingly created in the casting process. 2. an antique, mottled finish.

Assembly: 1. a group of components that when integrated in a design concept form an assembly.

Brick Tie: a mechanical attachment of 22-gauge, galvanized steel hardware commonly used for brick installation that is imbedded in cast stone and anchored into a structural support.

Bolection moldings(also see moldings): a Bolection Molding is any kind of molding that protrudes from another surface creating a design profile. When referred to as a fireplace application,the term usually refers to a simple molding or combination of moldings directly surrounding the opening of the fireplace Box. Bolection molding surrounds may also be used in conjunction with moldings, sills to create mantle shelves or larger integrated assemblies.

Color: 1. integral pigment added to a concrete mix design. 2. as relates to manufactured cast stone, the colour choice is separate from choice of hue and tone which are not controllable and vary widely.

Component: a single piece of cast stone, engineered for a specific application and generally manufactured in standard dimensions; designed as an essential, yet versatile element of one or more comprehensive cast stone Integrated Assemblies.

Concrete Cure Time: optimum cure time for most types of concrete is 28 days, including cast stone. Minimum time before shipping is 7 days.

Custom Colour: a non-standard, non-specialty colour that is chosen by the specifier, matched by a colour supplier and made into a sample by Venezia.

Custom Mould: a set-up for a new Basic Component. Price per quote.

Custom Size: a custom size of a basic component as specified in writing by the purchaser created by adapting an existing mould. Generally involves a set-up fee.

Dowel: a mechanical anchoring technique consisting of a steel rod anchored into a structural member on one end and inserted into a pre-drilled cavity in cast stone on the other.

Entrapped Air: 1. air trapped in wet concrete and unable to completely escape the mould. 2. the cause of pitting or “bug holes”.

Facing (also see veneer): applied to rough masonry or plastered surface, a veneer of non-structural cast stone, equipped with embedded mechanical attachment hardware. 1. designed to replace the cumbersome and expensive use of natural stone in the complete cladding of buildings. 2. used to visually “weight” or “ground” the lower section of a building or other structure. 3. found as a decorative element at entry portals, to enhance the sense of grace and solidity of this important and personal architectural feature.

Field Cut: Field cuts are required on every job. Pavers may be cut wet with a diamond blade tile saw or dry with a diamond or carbide blade. Compared to other masonry products, cast stone “cuts like butter”. When chamfered or eased edge pavers must be cut, the eased or chamfered edge may be restored with a grinding wheel or a wet stone.

Hairline Cracking (Non-Structural): a form of stress relief which does not compromise the integrity of cast stone. 1. occasionally found in Basic Components where an abrupt change in dimension occurs. 2. can be created by non-proportional dimensions such as extreme lengths and narrow widths that combine to cause internal stress.

Hand-formed Cast Stone: a process by which a partially cured concrete pour is manipulated by hand to create a desired effect such as a hollow core, false nose or hard-troweled pour face

Hand-Troweled Cast Stone: a process by which a partially cured concrete pour is manipulated by hand, using a trowel to smooth the backside, underside, unfinished and exposed side or edge of a piece.

Hearth: flat hearths are minimally 2” thick and are either set flush, or just slightly above the floor coverings surface. Eased or Chamfered Edges are best suited for the flat hearths. Pre-sized Raised Chamfered Edge Floor Hearths are included with all Venezia Surround Systems. Alternate Raised Hearths are available as universal returns using the Adjustable Method. A raised hearth is most often used when the firebox is elevated from the floor or as a seat. They are usually 6”-18” high and a variety of nosing details are available such as bullnose, eased, ogee. Copings may also be used as hearths and field cut on site. Venezia has standard system hearths and an adjustable method.

Hood: A Hood is a combination of any kind of veneer panels, quoins or moldings that form an adornment above the mantle shelf either meeting the ceiling or a decorative molding.

Inherent Tonal Variation: Venezia Fireplace Fascia is a handmade, acid-etched concrete product containing integral colour pigments. The proportions of all ingredients (sand, cement, water, colour, etc.) are closely monitored to ensure a product of consistent and desired quality. tonal variation is an inherent and desired characteristic of both natural and cast stone. Exposure to sunlight, moisture, and wind during the curing process, acid-etching and storage will also contribute to random colour variation in the project.

Integrated Assembly: a grouping of cast stone Basic Components inspired by European antecedents, designed and installed to create a comprehensive architectural element.

Leg/pilaster: A leg may consist of veneer type panels of inlays or molding profiles, or perhaps a corbel piece at the top and a plinth at the foot. Usually it is a straight piece, however, if a corner or arch connect to a leg, they are cast separate from the straight portion of the leg.

Mantle Shelf & Header/Lintel: The mantle shelf is a decorative element similar to a molding profile which sits above a header or bolection molding. A Header or Lintel acts as a support beam to the mantle shelf and adds visual weight to the mantle design. Sometimes lintels are used as a header piece above a door or window. Headers are usually a block or arch of cast stone sitting above the leg and the opening. You may use one of our standard mantles and headers or also a veneer, molding or sill if designing a integrated assembly of parts.

Model Numbers: Basic Components are labeled with model numbers for ease of reference.

Mold: a form from which a casting is manufactured.

Molding: the architectural form used to introduce a variety of outlines and contours in edges or surfaces, equipped with embedded mechanical attachment hardware. 1. belly band: a flat or convex moulding applied to the face of a building, producing a horizontal linear detail which gives the effect of girding the mass of the building. 2. door surround moulding: straight or radial moulding which wraps the top and sides of the door, often terminating into plinth blocks. 3. window surround moulding: straight or radial moulding which wraps all sides of a window; the lower horizontal member is often a sill with a deeper profile than the top and side pieces.

Mold Mark: inherent product of the casting process; reduced in a process akin to sanding called “stoning.”

PSI: abbreviation of pounds per square inch; unit of measure in determining the compressive strength of concrete. 1. Venezia’s mix design has been engineered to provide a PSI of approximately. 4500 (for comparison, the average residential concrete driveway is 2000 to 2500 PSI).

Pallets: Basic Components are packaged on wooden slat pallets and shrink-wrapped to prevent movement during shipment.

Patina: film formed by exposure to the elements (i.e. moisture, staining of flora and fauna, sunlight, etc.); process may be accelerated or resisted according to the wishes of the specifier and end user.

Patina-Site-Specific: Venezia Fireplace Fascia is a non-glazed, cementitious product that will take on a site-specific patina when installed outside. Traffic and use patterns, local soil, exposure to elements, and flora and fauna such as snail tracks, bird droppings, tree sap and clay soils will all affect the formulation of a patina. If a patina is not desired, another product should be specified. A “weathered stone” aesthetic should be the desire and choice of the client.

Pilaster (also see leg): a rectangular column. 1. free-standing, complete with base and cap. 2. applied to and projecting from a wall supporting the header/lintel or mantel shelf.

Plaster Reverse: a mould made from casting plaster, typically destroyed in the process of stripping the cast from the mould.

Sacking: the process of filling entrapped air pockets larger than 1/4”.

Slip: a cast stone veneer stretching between a surround opening and the surround pilaster/leg or bolection molding used to adjust the opening size or cover an exposed surface such as the metal of a zero clearance box.

Shop Drawing: a drawing done by Venezia and submitted to specifier for approval, then provided to the Venezia shop as a diagram for production. 1. for custom moulds. 2. for height adjustment, i.e., columns, piers. 3. for blocking of standard moulds, i.e., custom length or width. 4. for location of pre-drilled holes or mechanical anchors such as brick ties.

Stoning: literally, sanding with a wet stone to abrade mould marks or rough edges.

Storage: At all times after delivery, the cast stone surrounds should be stored off the ground on non-staining planks or pallets. Material should not be stored in the closed shipping crates for more than 2-3 days. Cast stone stored for any extended period of time should be removed from the original packing crates and stored on a non-staining material, and, if outside, cover with non-staining tarpaulins. Allow the material to breathe.

Synthetic Fiber Reinforcing: method of reinforcing pre-cast concrete with tiny synthetic fibers replaces the need for rebar on most pieces and allows for easier field cuts.

Surrounds (also see Moldings and Bolection): are any bolection molding or combination of pilaster, header/lintel or mantel shelf surrounding an opening. Many Fireplace Surrounds lend themselves nicely to be used as Door and window surround. Grand Entries may be achieved by ordering extra leg/straight pieces to extend the height or opening size and combined with other architectural parts to create a stunning entry to any home. Simple door or window surrounds may use a bolection molding system with extra corner or straight pieces.

Tolerance: Because of the handmade production process, Venezia Fireplace Fascia pavers have a minimum tolerance of +/- 1/4″ in all directions. For lengths/widths over 24″, add 1/16″ tolerance per additional 12″. For quoins, corners and cut-away components, allow 1/4″ tolerance +/- in all directions. The end user should be expecting a rustic finished appearance; grout joints will vary in thickness; and installed heights of individual pavers may vary slightly.

Typical Sample: exhibits the essential characteristics of Venezia, such as texture, finish, and colour (not to be considered exact representations of each Basic Component as colour, finish and texture will vary, see Disclosure of Specifications). 1: available as colour sample tablets. 2: available by request as full-scale Basic Component samples.

Unfinished End: elements of Basic Components that are not intended by Venezia to be used as finished elements in an Integrated Assembly; often these cannot be adequately etched or stoned and may include raised or inscribed model numbers.

Urethane Mold: a mold made from urethane. Expensive, fragile and demanding, it produces the finest cast stone finish of any type of mould.

Veneer (also see facing): a piece of cast stone 1”-4” thick of rectangular or square shape, flat, radial, convex or concave that stretches between either another piece of veneer or another profile such as a molding, pilaster or as a ‘Slip.’